mount(8) - mount a filesystem
-V, --version
       Output version.
-h, --help
       Print a help message.
-v, --verbose
       Verbose mode.
-a, --all
       Mount all filesystems (of the given types) mentioned in fstab.
-F, --fork
       (Used in conjunction with -a.)  Fork off a new incarnation of mount for each device.  This will do
       the mounts on different devices or different NFS servers in parallel.  This has the advantage that
       it is faster; also NFS timeouts go in parallel. A disadvantage is that  the  mounts  are  done  in
       undefined order.  Thus, you cannot use this option if you want to mount both /usr and /usr/spool.
-f, --fake
       Causes  everything  to  be  done  except  for  the  actual  system call; if it's not obvious, this
       ``fakes'' mounting the filesystem.  This option is useful in  conjunction  with  the  -v  flag  to
       determine  what  the mount command is trying to do. It can also be used to add entries for devices
       that were mounted earlier with the -n  option.  The  -f  option  checks  for  existing  record  in
       /etc/mtab  and  fails  when  the record already exists (with regular non-fake mount, this check is
       done by kernel).
-i, --internal-only
       Don't call the /sbin/mount.<filesystem> helper even if it exists.
-l     Add the labels in the mount output. Mount must have permission to read the disk  device  (e.g.  be
       suid root) for this to work.  One can set such a label for ext2, ext3 or ext4 using the e2label(8)
       utility, or for XFS using xfs_admin(8), or for reiserfs using reiserfstune(8).
-n, --no-mtab
       Mount without writing in /etc/mtab.  This is necessary for example when /etc  is  on  a  read-only
       Don't  canonicalize  paths. The mount command canonicalizes all paths (from command line or fstab)
       and stores canonicalized paths to the /etc/mtab file. This option can be used together with the -f
       flag for already canonicalized absolut paths.
-p, --pass-fd num
       In  case  of a loop mount with encryption, read the passphrase from file descriptor num instead of
       from the terminal.
-s     Tolerate sloppy mount options rather than failing. This will ignore mount options not supported by
       a  filesystem type. Not all filesystems support this option. This option exists for support of the
       Linux autofs-based automounter.
-r, --read-only
       Mount the filesystem read-only. A synonym is -o ro.

       Note that, depending on the filesystem type, state and kernel behavior, the system may still write
       to  the  device.  For example, Ext3 or ext4 will replay its journal if the filesystem is dirty. To
       prevent this kind of write access, you may want to mount ext3 or ext4 filesystem with  "ro,noload"
       mount options or set the block device to read-only mode, see command blockdev(8).
-w, --rw
       Mount the filesystem read/write. This is the default. A synonym is -o rw.
-L label
       Mount the partition that has the specified label.
-U uuid
       Mount   the  partition  that  has  the  specified  uuid.   These  two  options  require  the  file
       /proc/partitions (present since Linux 2.1.116) to exist.
-t, --types vfstype
       The argument following the -t is used to indicate the filesystem type.  The filesystem types which
       are  currently  supported  include:  adfs,  affs,  autofs,  cifs, coda, coherent, cramfs, debugfs,
       devpts, efs, ext, ext2, ext3, ext4, hfs, hfsplus, hpfs, iso9660, jfs, minix,  msdos,  ncpfs,  nfs,
       nfs4,  ntfs,  proc,  qnx4,  ramfs, reiserfs, romfs, squashfs, smbfs, sysv, tmpfs, ubifs, udf, ufs,
       umsdos, usbfs, vfat, xenix, xfs, xiafs.  Note that coherent, sysv and  xenix  are  equivalent  and
       that  xenix  and  coherent  will  be removed at some point in the future — use sysv instead. Since
       kernel version 2.1.21 the types ext and xiafs do not exist anymore. Earlier, usbfs  was  known  as
       usbdevfs.  Note, the real list of all supported filesystems depends on your kernel.
-O, --test-opts opts
       Used in conjunction with -a, to limit the set of filesystems to which the -a is applied.  Like  -t
       in this regard except that it is useless except in the context of -a.  For example, the command:
-o, --options opts
       Options are specified with a -o flag followed by a comma separated string of options. For example:

              mount LABEL=mydisk -o noatime,nouser

-B, --bind
       Remount a subtree somewhere else (so that its contents are available in both places). See above.
-R, --rbind
       Remount a subtree and all possible submounts somewhere else (so that its contents are available in
       both places). See above.
-M, --move
       Move a subtree to some other place. See above.
uid=value and gid=value
       Set the owner and group of the files in the filesystem (default: uid=gid=0).
ownmask=value and othmask=value
       Set the permission mask  for  ADFS  'owner'  permissions  and  'other'  permissions,  respectively
       (default:          0700         and         0077,         respectively).          See         also
uid=value and gid=value
       Set the owner and group of the root of the filesystem (default: uid=gid=0, but with option uid  or
       gid without specified value, the uid and gid of the current process are taken).
setuid=value and setgid=value
       Set the owner and group of all files.

       Set  the  mode  of  all  files  to value & 0777 disregarding the original permissions.  Add search
       permission to directories that have read permission.  The value is given in octal.

       Do not allow any changes to the protection bits on the filesystem.

usemp  Set uid and gid of the root of the filesystem to the uid and gid of the mount point upon the first
       sync or umount, and then clear this option. Strange...

       Print an informational message for each successful mount.
       Prefix used before volume name, when following a link.
       Prefix (of length at most 30) used before '/' when following a symbolic link.
       (Default: 2.) Number of unused blocks at the start of the device.
       Give explicitly the location of the root block.
       Give blocksize. Allowed values are 512, 1024, 2048, 4096.
       Set  the  mode  of  newly  created  PTYs to the specified value.  The default is 0600.  A value of
       mode=620 and gid=5 makes "mesg y" the default on newly created PTYs.
sb=n   Instead of block 1, use block n as superblock. This could be useful when the filesystem  has  been
       damaged.   (Earlier,  copies  of the superblock would be made every 8192 blocks: in block 1, 8193,
       16385, ... (and one got thousands of copies on a big filesystem). Since version 1.08, mke2fs has a
       -s  (sparse  superblock) option to reduce the number of backup superblocks, and since version 1.15
       this is the default. Note that this may mean that ext2 filesystems  created  by  a  recent  mke2fs
       cannot  be mounted r/w under Linux 2.0.*.)  The block number here uses 1k units. Thus, if you want
       to use logical block 32768 on a filesystem with 4k blocks, use "sb=131072".
       Update the ext3 filesystem's journal to the current format.
       When  a  journal already exists, this option is ignored. Otherwise, it specifies the number of the
       inode which will represent the ext3 filesystem's journal file;  ext3 will create  a  new  journal,
       overwriting the old contents of the file whose inode number is inum.
barrier=0 / barrier=1
       This  enables/disables  barriers.   barrier=0  disables  it, barrier=1 enables it.  Write barriers
       enforce proper on-disk ordering of journal commits, making volatile disk write caches safe to use,
       at  some  performance penalty.  The ext3 filesystem does not enable write barriers by default.  Be
       sure to enable barriers unless your disks are battery-backed one way or  another.   Otherwise  you
       risk filesystem corruption in case of power failure.
       Sync  all  data  and  metadata  every  nrsec  seconds.  The default value is 5 seconds. Zero means
       Update the ext4 filesystem's journal to the current format.

barrier=0 / barrier=1 / barrier / nobarrier
       This enables/disables the use of write barriers in the jbd code.   barrier=0  disables,  barrier=1
       enables.  This also requires an IO stack which can support barriers, and if jbd gets an error on a
       barrier write, it will disable again with  a  warning.   Write  barriers  enforce  proper  on-disk
       ordering  of  journal  commits, making volatile disk write caches safe to use, at some performance
       penalty.  If your disks are battery-backed in one way or another, disabling  barriers  may  safely
       improve  performance.   The  mount options "barrier" and "nobarrier" can also be used to enable or
       disable barriers, for consistency with other ext4 mount options.

       The ext4 filesystem enables write barriers by default.
       This tuning parameter controls the maximum number of inode table blocks that  ext4's  inode  table
       readahead algorithm will pre-read into the buffer cache.  The default value is 32 blocks.
       Number  of  filesystem  blocks that mballoc will try to use for allocation size and alignment. For
       RAID5/6 systems this should be the number of data disks * RAID chunk size in filesystem blocks.

       Deferring block allocation until write-out time.

       Disable delayed allocation. Blocks are allocated when data is copied from user to page cache.
       Maximum amount of time ext4 should wait for additional filesystem operations to be batch  together
       with a synchronous write operation. Since a synchronous write operation is going to force a commit
       and then a wait for the I/O complete, it doesn't cost much, and can be a huge throughput  win,  we
       wait  for a small amount of time to see if any other transactions can piggyback on the synchronous
       write. The algorithm used is designed to  automatically  tune  for  the  speed  of  the  disk,  by
       measuring  the  amount of time (on average) that it takes to finish committing a transaction. Call
       this time the "commit time".  If the time that the transaction has been running is less  than  the
       commit  time,  ext4 will try sleeping for the commit time to see if other operations will join the
       transaction. The commit time is capped by the max_batch_time, which defaults  to  15000us  (15ms).
       This optimization can be turned off entirely by setting max_batch_time to 0.

       This  parameter  sets  the  commit  time  (as  described  above) to be at least min_batch_time. It
       defaults to zero microseconds. Increasing this parameter may  improve  the  throughput  of  multi-
       threaded, synchronous workloads on very fast disks, at the cost of increasing latency.
       The  I/O  priority  (from  0  to  7,  where 0 is the highest priorty) which should be used for I/O
       operations submitted by kjournald2 during a commit operation.  This defaults  to  3,  which  is  a
       slightly higher priority than the default I/O priority.
uid=value and gid=value
       Set the owner and group of all files.  (Default: the uid and gid of the current process.)
       Set  the  umask (the bitmask of the permissions that are not present). The default is the umask of
       the current process.  The value is given in octal.
       Set the umask applied to directories only.  The default is the umask of the current process.   The
       value is given in octal.
       Set  the  umask  applied  to regular files only.  The default is the umask of the current process.
       The value is given in octal.
       This option controls the permission check of mtime/atime.

       20     If current process is in group of file's group ID, you can change timestamp.

       2      Other users can change timestamp.

       The default is set from `dmask' option. (If the directory is writable, utime(2) is  also  allowed.
       I.e. ~dmask & 022)

       Normally  utime(2)  checks  current process is owner of the file, or it has CAP_FOWNER capability.
       But FAT filesystem doesn't have uid/gid on disk, so normal check  is  too  unflexible.  With  this
       option you can relax it.
       Three different levels of pickyness can be chosen:

              Upper  and  lower  case  are  accepted  and equivalent, long name parts are truncated (e.g.
              verylongname.foobar becomes, leading and embedded spaces are accepted in each
              name part (name and extension).

              Like  "relaxed", but many special characters (*, ?, <, spaces, etc.) are rejected.  This is
              the default.

              Like "normal", but names may not  contain  long  parts  and  special  characters  that  are
              sometimes used on Linux, but are not accepted by MS-DOS are rejected. (+, =, spaces, etc.)
       Sets  the codepage for converting to shortname characters on FAT and VFAT filesystems. By default,
       codepage 437 is used.

       The fat filesystem can perform CRLF<-->NL (MS-DOS text format to UNIX text format)  conversion  in
       the kernel. The following conversion modes are available:

       binary no translation is performed.  This is the default.
       Option passed to the CVF module. This option is obsolete.

debug  Turn  on  the  debug  flag.   A version string and a list of filesystem parameters will be printed
       (these data are also printed if the parameters appear to be inconsistent).
       Character  set  to  use for converting between 8 bit characters and 16 bit Unicode characters. The
       default is iso8859-1.  Long filenames are stored on disk in Unicode format.
creator=cccc, type=cccc
       Set  the  creator/type  values  as shown by the MacOS finder used for creating new files.  Default
       values: '????'.
uid=n, gid=n
       Set the owner and group of all files.  (Default: the uid and gid of the current process.)
dir_umask=n, file_umask=n, umask=n
       Set the umask used for all directories, all regular files, or all files and directories.  Defaults
       to the umask of the current process.
       Select  the  CDROM session to mount.  Defaults to leaving that decision to the CDROM driver.  This
       option will fail with anything but a CDROM as underlying device.
uid=value and gid=value
       Set the owner and group of all files. (Default: the uid and gid of the current process.)
       Set  the  umask (the bitmask of the permissions that are not present). The default is the umask of
       the current process.  The value is given in octal.
uid=value and gid=value
       Give  all  files  in  the  filesystem  the  indicated  user  or  group id, possibly overriding the
       information found in the Rock Ridge extensions.  (Default: uid=0,gid=0.)

       For non-Rock Ridge volumes, normal name translation maps  upper  to  lower  case  ASCII,  drops  a
       trailing  `;1',  and  converts  `;' to `.'.  With map=off no name translation is done. See norock.
       (Default: map=normal.)  map=acorn is like map=normal but also apply Acorn extensions if present.
       For non-Rock Ridge volumes, give all files the indicated  mode.   (Default:  read  permission  for
       everybody.)   Since  Linux  2.1.37  one  no longer needs to specify the mode in decimal. (Octal is
       indicated by a leading 0.)

unhide Also show hidden and associated files.  (If the ordinary files and the associated or hidden  files
       have the same filenames, this may make the ordinary files inaccessible.)
       Select number of session on multisession CD. (Since 2.3.4.)
       Session begins from sector xxx. (Since 2.3.4.)

The  following  options  are  the  same as for vfat and specifying them only makes sense when using discs
encoded using Microsoft's Joliet extensions.
       Character set to use for converting 16 bit Unicode characters on  CD  to  8  bit  characters.  The
       default is iso8859-1.
       Resize  the  volume  to  value  blocks. JFS only supports growing a volume, not shrinking it. This
       option is only valid during a remount, when the volume is mounted read-write. The  resize  keyword
       with no value will grow the volume to the full size of the partition.

       Do  not  write  to the journal.  The primary use of this option is to allow for higher performance
       when restoring a volume from backup media. The integrity of the volume is not  guaranteed  if  the
       system abnormally abends.

       Default.   Commit  metadata changes to the journal.  Use this option to remount a volume where the
       nointegrity option was previously specified in order to restore normal behavior.
       Character  set  to use when returning file names.  Unlike VFAT, NTFS suppresses names that contain
       nonconvertible characters. Deprecated.
       New name for the option earlier called iocharset.

utf8   Use UTF-8 for converting file names.
uid=value and gid=value
       These options are recognized, but have no effect as far as I can see.
       A  remount  option  which  permits online expansion of reiserfs partitions.  Instructs reiserfs to
       assume that the device has number blocks.  This option is designed for use with devices which  are
       under  logical  volume management (LVM).  There is a special resizer utility which can be obtained

       Enable Extended User Attributes. See the attr(5) manual page.

acl    Enable POSIX Access Control Lists. See the acl(5) manual page.
barrier=none / barrier=flush
       This enables/disables the use of write barriers in the journaling code.  barrier=none disables it,
       barrier=flush  enables  it.  Write  barriers  enforce  proper on-disk ordering of journal commits,
       making volatile disk write  caches  safe  to  use,  at  some  performance  penalty.  The  reiserfs
       filesystem does not enable write barriers by default. Be sure to enable barriers unless your disks
       are battery-backed one way or another. Otherwise you risk filesystem corruption in case  of  power
       The same as size, but in blocks of PAGE_CACHE_SIZE

       The maximum number of inodes for this instance. The default is half of the number of your physical
       RAM pages, or (on a machine with highmem) the number of lowmem RAM pages, whichever is the lower.

The  tmpfs  mount  options for sizing ( size, nr_blocks, and nr_inodes) accept a suffix k, m or g for Ki,
Mi, Gi (binary kilo, mega and giga) and can be changed on remount.
mode=  Set initial permissions of the root directory.
gid=   Set the default group.

umask= Set the default umask.  The value is given in octal.
uid=   Set the default user.

unhide Show otherwise hidden files.

       Show deleted files in lists.

       Unset strict conformance.

       Set the NLS character set.
bs=    Set the block size. (May not work unless 2048.)

novrs  Skip volume sequence recognition.
       Set the CDROM session counting from 0. Default: last session.
       Override standard anchor location. Default: 256.
       Override the VolumeDesc location. (unused)
       Override the PartitionDesc location. (unused)
       Set the last block of the filesystem.
       Override the fileset block location. (unused)
       Override the root directory location. (unused)
       UFS is a filesystem widely used in different operating systems.  The problem are differences among
       implementations.  Features  of some implementations are undocumented, so its hard to recognize the
       type of ufs automatically.  That's why the user must specify the type  of  ufs  by  mount  option.
       Possible values are:
       Set behaviour on error:
       Sets the number of hash buckets available for hashing the in-memory inodes of the specified  mount
       point.   If a value of zero is used, the value selected by the default algorithm will be displayed
       in /proc/mounts.

       When inode clusters are emptied of inodes, keep them around on the disk  (ikeep)  -  this  is  the
       traditional  XFS  behaviour  and  is  still  the default for now.  Using the noikeep option, inode
       clusters are returned to the free space pool.

       Indicates that XFS is allowed to create inodes at any location in the filesystem, including  those
       which  will result in inode numbers occupying more than 32 bits of significance.  This is provided
       for backwards compatibility, but causes problems for backup applications that cannot handle  large
       inode numbers.

       If  nolargeio  is specified, the optimal I/O reported in st_blksize by stat(2) will be as small as
       possible to allow user applications to avoid inefficient read/modify/write  I/O.   If  largeio  is
       specified,  a  filesystem  that  has a swidth specified will return the swidth value (in bytes) in
       st_blksize. If the filesystem does not have a swidth specified but does specify an allocsize  then
       allocsize  (in  bytes)  will  be returned instead.  If neither of these two options are specified,
       then filesystem will behave as if nolargeio was specified.
       Set the number of in-memory log buffers.  Valid numbers range from  2-8  inclusive.   The  default
       value is 8 buffers for any recent kernel.

       Set the size of each in-memory log buffer.  Size may be specified in bytes, or in kilobytes with a
       "k" suffix.  Valid sizes for version 1 and version 2 logs are 16384 (16k) and 32768 (32k).   Valid
       sizes  for  version 2 logs also include 65536 (64k), 131072 (128k) and 262144 (256k).  The default
       value for any recent kernel is 32768.
logdev=device and rtdev=device
       Use an external log (metadata journal) and/or real-time device.  An XFS filesystem has up to three
       parts: a data section, a log section, and a real-time section.  The real-time section is optional,
       and the log section can be separate from the data  section  or  contained  within  it.   Refer  to
       Use with the dmapi option. The value specified here will be included in the DMAPI mount event, and
       should be the path of the actual mountpoint that is used.
sunit=value and swidth=value
       Used to specify the stripe unit and width for a RAID device or a stripe  volume.   value  must  be
       specified in 512-byte block units.  If this option is not specified and the filesystem was made on
       a stripe volume or the stripe width or unit were specified for the RAID device at mkfs time,  then
       the  mount  system call will restore the value from the superblock.  For filesystems that are made
       directly on RAID devices, these options can be used to override the information in the  superblock
       if the underlying disk layout changes after the filesystem has been created.  The swidth option is
       required if the sunit option has been specified, and must be a multiple of the sunit value.